PPP 09.16.09

Presented by Dan Rothschild, Rothschild Doyno Collaborative

Broad content but at a very shallow level

Biological influence à zoning code

Programming and Analysis

  1. Architectural Design
    1. What are considerations in architectural design?
      1. site
      2. program
      3. client
      4. budget
      5. codes
      6. zoning
      7. climate
      8. materials
      9. history
      10. aesthetics
    2. Form Prototypes
      1. Linear
      2. Axial
      3. Radial
      4. Precedential
    3. What determines a building’s physical form?
      1. Site
      2. Climate
      3. Structure
      4. Material
      5. Cultural influence
      6. Scale
      7. Proportion
      8. Harmony
  2. Programming
    1. Design is based on influences
      1. convergent process
    2. programming is divergent
      1. programming is a search for the proper solution based on the divergent solutions
      2. programming is the true beginning (not schematic design)
      3. program is not always prepackaged predetermined (not just a list of spaces on an excel spreadsheet, should be qualitative as well as quantitative)
      4. programming is about probem seeking, not solving
        1. process should involve the intended end result (formal, soft, modern)
        2. not just a standardized analysis (ie: 2ft per. person, 3ft btw. tables)
        3. program, ideally should be flexible
    3. various scales of program:
      1. groupà building à activity à space
      2. large scale à small scale
  3. square footage
    1. gross: face of outside wall
    2. net: many definitions
      1. BOMA: USF from CL of glass plane
      2. Can equate to a BIG difference
    3. circulation: usually a guess based on established precedent
      1. Functional: mech/ elec., stairs, elevators,
      2. Exam may ask for a breakdown of sf. based on given program.
  4. Building Prototypes
    1. Usually some archetype exists for building design.
      1. housing
      2. hotels
      3. shopping centers
      4. schools
      5. places of worship
      6. theathers
      7. parking facilities
      8. hospitals
    2. BLDG types elicts QUALITATIVE DATA and ARCHETYPES that influence the building’s design.

Environmental, Social, Economic Factors

  1. Design relationship to the human body
    1. Human body as scale, system of measurement (historical: foot, cubit, etc.)
    2. Nature as a source of inspiration
      1. TWA Terminal: bird
      2. Gothic cathedral: trees
    3. characteristics of architectural design”
      1. architectural design is an intuitive combination of these 9
        1. space
        2. proportion
        3. symmetry
        4. form
        5. rhythm
        6. light
        7. scale
        8. balance
        9. color
      2. vocabulary
        1. point à line à plane à volume à
        2. shape
        3. size
        4. texture
  2. human elements (Maslof’s scale of human need)
    1. senses/ perception
    2. safety
    3. sense of belonging
    4. style (historical style, based on cultural/ social conditions)
    5. beauty (eye of the beholder)

History of Urban Design (in five minutes)
Also known as community planning, urban planning

  1. What do you eat diet influences community planning
    1. Plant eaters plant in rows — a grid system develops
    2. Meat eaters herd animals (circles are more efficient) — series of circles develops
  2. Archetypes
    1. Greek — grid with a regular city wall
    2. Roman — more formal wall with gates
    3. Medieval — series of concentric enclosures as the city grows
    4. Renaissance — first understanding the public space courtyards etc.
    5. Baroque — introduction of axes and a sense of order
    6. American — grid system of successively smaller squares (Spanish, French influence)
      1. 160 acres (one quarter square-mile) given by government to new landowners
  3. Precedent
    1. Frederick Law Olmsted Central Park design
    2. Garden City movements
    3. City beautiful movement
    4. Post-World War II developments
  4. Transportation patterns
    1. Strong influence on urban design
    2. Very similar to form prototypes
    3. Prototypes
      1. Linear (highway)
      2. Rectilinear (city grid)
      3. Radiocentric
      4. Star/finger (Chicago)
      5. Ring (Baltimore, Boston, Washington, Northeast Corridor)
      6. Sheet
      7. Constellation (interconnected cities)
  5. Housing types increasing in size and density
    1. single-family
    2. duplexes
    3. rowhouses
    4. high-rises
  6. Suburbs
    1. high-density — 10 units per acre
    2. Lowest density required for public transit — 30 units per acre
    3. (Should know density benchmarks for the exam)
  7. PUD — planned unit development
  8. New Urbanism — a return to earlier models often dictates an historical style
  9. Future of the City — ecology, diversity
    1. more planning/ support
    2. government incentives


Codes and Regulations

A. Land / building regulations

  1. Ownership — legal possession of property
    1. Brief, long-standing, or permanent
  2. Regulations — rights or prohibitions of the landowner
    1. ownership of land — zoning
    2. building — codes
  3. Types
    1. single owners
    2. joint owners (example: husband-and-wife)
    3. partnerships
  4. Terminology
    1. Fee simple — absolute ownership of land
    2. Condominium — ownership of the portion of the land or building
    3. Corporation — leaseholder is a renter
    4. Cooperative — owns a share of the corporation that owns the land or building
    5. A Deed establishes ownership, records land, and is financed by a mortgage
  5. Property descriptions
    1. legal property
      1. metes and bounds determine length and direction the property line
      2. covenants or restrictive covenants
      3. easements clients ability to use a portion of the land to another entity
      4. party wall easement
    2. More contemporary restrictions
      1. solar rights
      2. historic façade easements
    3. Other terms
      1. development impact financing (also known as impact fees)
      2. eminent domain

B. Zoning and building codes

Regulations need to be reviewed early in the process (as early as possible!)

  1. Zoning — the division of land into districts
    1. Defines what can and can’t be done on a certain piece of land a.k.a. the permitted use
    2. Non-permitted use a conditional use for special exceptions
    3. Covariance — a variation from the zoning code
  2. Environmental impact statements
    1. All major federal projects require one
    2. Resource inventory
    3. environmental impact statement
    4. listing of alternatives
    5. Right-of-way — government restriction
  3. Building codes
    1. “The code is like a tree” – Dan Rothschild
      1. A specific project lead you down different branches
      2. in they never end up in the same place twice
      3. bottom-line: don’t try to memorize the code — it is far too complex
    2. A typical code review (IBC) starts with:
      1. use
      2. height and area
      3. construction type
      4. citing differences
      5. fire resistance of building elements
      6. means of egress
      7. exterior envelope and energy conservation
    3. Other relevant codes — OSHA, NFPA, FHA
  4. Project and practice management
    1. Schedule design and construction
      1. managers budget and expectations
      2. profitability is made or lost in schematic design
      3. spirals not circles
    2. Factors affecting construction
      1. quality of construction documents
      2. contractor and subs
      3. relationship with the contractor
      4. size and complexity of the project
      5. climates considerations
      6. labor climate considerations
    3. Critical path method — sequencing of elements of construction and their relationships to one another
      1. event — an activity transitioning from one to another, represented by a vertical line
      2. milestone — major date, represented by a diamond
      3. float — the aggregate time of all of activities in critical path method
        1. the more float in the schedule — more flexibility in the project
      4. fast tracking — overlapping of documentation with construction
  5. Budget and cost estimating
    1. Budgeting is a very difficult process
      1. External consultants can assist
      2. Budgets typically follow the phases of design
    2. Hard cost — actual construction
    3. Soft cost — usually 15 to 20%
      1. Procuring of land/ property/ space
      2. Design services
      3. permit fees
      4. testing and evaluations
    4. Construction cost can increase due to inflation over time (can be an issue on long projects)
  6. Financing of building projects
    1. Client relationships (financiers, joint ventures, etc.)
    2. Pro forma — incumbent expenses (the “cost of money”)
    3. principal plus interest

(more content to be added soon!)


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