PPP 09.22.10

Presented by Dan Rothschild, Rothschild Doyno Collaborative

Click here for Suggested Resources

exam consists of two basic types of content:
“day-to-day” knowledge
stuff you only need to know to pass the test

1. PROGRAMMING

  • design is a CONVERGENT process (“problem solving”)
  • programming is a DIVERGENT process (“problem seeking”)
    • best-case is a “loose fit” based on:
      • QUANTITATIVE aspects (function, size, adjacency…)
      • QUALITATIVE aspects (scale, proportion, harmony…)
    • programming is NOT an Excel spreadsheet with room names, areas, etc — much more complex process than that
    • CLUSTERING is the process through which certain spaces gather together based on architectural concerns
  • defining square footage (biggest misunderstanding in programming)
    • GROSS
    • NET
    • LEASABLE/ RENTABLE
    • per industry standards (BOMA, etc)
  • efficiency factors (affect square footage, program, etc)
    • circulation
    • wall thickness
    • efficiency varies with building type
      • Consol Energy Center – one big space
      • spec office – several smaller spaces
  • programming is typically an additional service for architects

2. LAND ANALYSIS

  • CATCHMENT AREA – geographical boundary that the project draws upon
    • influences most architectural projects
    • defines financial feasibility of real estate development
    • factors:  transportation, zoning
  • LAND USE AND VALUE
    • influenced by:
      • transportation
      • utilities
      • parking
      • neighboring properties
      • amenities (schools, hospitals, etc)
      • soil conditions
      • zoning restrictions
      • solar orientation
  • VALUATION
    • comparable properties (similar size and quality)
    • income approach (ie, that which can be derived from the property)
    • allocation method (value of construction)
  • SITE ANALYSIS
    • climate (micro- and macro-)
    • topography
    • hydrology
    • vegetation
    • soil quality
  • SURVEY
    • a clear and accurate survey can eliminate future disputes over site elements (property lines, utilities, etc)
    • at a minimum, should include the following:
      • metes and bounds
      • utilities
      • rights-of-way
      • restrictive covenants

3. LAND AND BUILDING REGULATION

  • types of regulation
    • land use — ZONING
    • building — CODE
  • OWNERSHIP can be short-term, long-term, or permanent
  • types of OWNERS
    • (sole) owner
    • joint tenancy (marriage)
    • partnership (must be dissolved before transferring ownership)
    • corporation (shareholders)
    • trustee (owns land for the benefit of another)
    • government
  • types of OWNERSHIP
    • fee-simple (or fee-absolute): absolute, complete ownership (without question)
    • condominium: ownership of a portion of the property (physical)
    • cooperative (or co-op): ownership of a share of the corporation that owns the land (value)
    • lease (or lease-holder): ownership of the rights to the use of a space
  • legal restrictions (must be understood as part of programming/ design process)
    • covenants
    • easements (usually utility-related)
      • joint use (two homeowners sharing a driveway)
      • party wall (ownership is to centerline of wall, but wall itself cannot be disturbed)
    • other types
      • solar access/ envelope
      • historic facades
      • air rights
      • sub-surface rights (mineral extraction)

4. ZONING AND BUILDING CODES

(general note: do not try to memorize building code!  tree analogy:  the code is like a tree, and each unique project will take a different branching path through it)

ZONING ORDINANCES

  • zoning originated in New York City in 1916, over public health concerns
  • regulates:
    • height
    • use
      • use by right
      • conditional use
      • permitted use
      • special exception
    • location on lot
    • setbacks
    • area
  • changes to established ordinance require a VARIANCE
  • Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
  • section 106 governs historic review process

BUILDING CODE

  • governs:
    • USE GROUP (or MIXED USE)
    • OCCUPANT LOAD
    • HEIGHT/ AREA ALLOWABLE
    • CONSTRUCTION TYPE
    • FIRE RESISTANCE OF ELEMENTS
    • MEANS OF EGRESS
    • ACCESSIBILIT
    • ENERGY PERFORMANCE
  • types of codes
    • IBC
    • UBC
    • SBC
    • BOCA
    • NFPA
    • OSHA
    • ANSI 117.1

5. SCHEDULING

  • design phase (SD – DD – CD – BN – CA)
  • construction phase – typically follows the CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM)
    • FLOAT
    • MILESTONES

6. BUDGET ANALYSIS and COST ESTIMATING

  • economic model is the basis for all viable projects
  • development budgets
    • hard costs: construction
    • soft costs
      • services (design, legal, accounting, marketing, etc)
      • permits
      • testing
      • contingency
      • furniture/ equipment
      • financing (can often be the largest impact on a project)
  • construction budgets
    • hard costs: materials and labor (presented and tracked using a SCHEDULE OF VALUES)
    • soft costs:
      • administration
      • permits
      • testing
      • overhead (insurance)
      • profit
    • the NEGOTIATION phase should include an understanding of the GC’s soft costs
  • cost estimating
    • usually a rule of thumb (Means, historical data, established precedent, etc)
    • should be updated throughout the process (especially on long projects)
    • DETAILED cost estimates are usually an additional service, or should be performed by a cost estimator
  • financing (how do owners get their money?)
    • PRIVATE – direct relationship with the lender
      • pro forma – income versus expenses
    • PUBLIC – tax revenues, bonds
      • ratings of real estate (A, B, C…)
Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s